Phonemes

phonemes chart

Phonics, Phonemic awareness, Early reading, Letters and Sounds, ELA K-2, ELA Kindergarten, ELA 1st Grade

Phonemes

US

illlustrated cats using cups on strings to talk

overview

A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound. Each different sound in a word is a phoneme, and each phoneme is represented by a grapheme (a letter or group of letters). 

Download our Phonemes chart and Phonemes & Graphemes chart below.

These charts provide a complete overview for teachers of phonemes and their corresponding graphemes. In kindergarten and 1st Grade, children will encounter all 44* phonemes and begin matching phonemes to the different graphemes that represent them.  



*this number can vary slightly depending on the dialect and the classification.



Common Core Alignment:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.K.2.C Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes). 
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.3.A Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant. 
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.3.B Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.

EXAMPLE

illustrated cup

The word cup has 3 phonemes: 

/k/, /u/, and /p/


Activities

phonemes and graphemes chart

sample pack

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Deep dive

Phonics is the method that helps children build systematic connections between letters and sounds. Phonics has a better impact on children’s reading ability than any other type of reading program. It has also been shown to improve spelling, particularly among kindergarteners and first graders. 

To find out more, read our Deep Dive into Phonics report. This report provides an easy-to-understand overview of phonics and phonemic awareness - why they are important and how they are taught in the classroom - and explains all the relevant terminology. It's perfect for sharing with colleagues, friends, and to Google Classroom!

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